Jeffrey CardonBarbara Christie-PopeMartha Condon (chair), Lenny GannesS. Andy McCollumBrian Nowak-ThompsonCraig Tepper

Major: A minimum of 13 courses (12 courses if CHE 161 is taken), including at least 10 courses in Biology, eight of which must be at or above the 200 level; also CHE 121-122 (or 161), and 225 (Chemical Principles I, II, or Accelerated General Chemistry, and Organic Chemistry I).

The courses in Biology must include the seven core courses listed below and at least one course from each of the other three groupings:

Core Courses
BIO 141 Foundations: Cellular Biology 
BIO 142 Foundations: Organismal Biology
BIO 205 Cell and Molecular Biology
BIO 211 Evolution
BIO 315 Genetics
BIO 321 Ecology
BIO 485 Biological Problems or BMB 485 Problems

Cell Grouping
BIO 305 Advanced Molecular Biology
BIO 313 Developmental Biology
BIO 326 Microbiology
BIO 327 Immunology
BIO 328 Neurobiology
BIO 335 Chemical Ecology

Plant Grouping
BIO 209 Plant Morphology
BIO 332 Plant Systematics

Animal Grouping
BIO 254 Ornithology
BIO 308 Invertebrate Zoology
BIO 312 Vertebrate Zoology
BIO 334 Animal Behavior
BIO 337 Entomology

Appropriate supporting work in chemistry, physics, and mathematics is also strongly recommended.

Teaching Major: Identical to the general major except BIO 485 is not required. If the student's program permits, however, BIO 485 is strongly recommended. In addition to the foregoing requirements for the subject major, prospective teachers must also apply for admission to the Teacher Education Program (preferably at the start of their sophomore year) and complete coursework leading to secondary certification described underEducation. Prospective teachers should request a current list of the specific course requirements from the Education Office.

Minor: A minimum of seven course credits (six courses if CHE 161 is taken), which include BIO 141, 142 and CHE 121-122 (or 161).  Students may elect either of the following two ways to complete the minor:  (1) CHE 225, BIO 205, and BIO 315; or (2) BIO 211, BIO 321 and one upper-level elective course in Biology.  Environmental Studies majors may receive a minor in Biology by completing the first track, or by completing the second track only if two of the upper-level Biology courses counted toward the minor are not counted toward the Environmental Studies major.  Biochemistry/Molecular Biology majors may receive a minor in Biology only by completing the second track with an upper-level elective course chosen from the plant or animal grouping.  See the discussion of minors in the Declaration of Degree Candidacy, Majors, and Minors section of this Catalogue.

Concentration: Students should consult with the Department concerning programs leading to graduate work in zoology, botany, or the health sciences; to high school teaching; to admission to schools of medicine and dentistry; and to various careers in the biological sciences.

Note: Students intending to take advanced work in Biology and all preprofessional students (medicine, dentistry, etc.) should take BIO 141 and 142.

103. Investigations
Investigative approach to the solution of biological problems, emphasizing designing, executing, and interpreting research. Specific research areas are confined to the interests of each instructor. Recommended for non-science majors. (Laboratory Science)

106. Biology for the Schools
Basic biology, emphasizing the investigative approach to solve biological problems. Students will design, execute, and interpret research. Class projects will teach application of scientific method and basic laboratory techniques. Research topics will vary with each instructor. Recommended for Education majors. (Laboratory Science)

108. Topics
Selected areas of biology, emphasizing the application of biological concepts and theory to humans and their environment. Topics vary each term. See Topics Courses. Recommended for non-science majors. (Science)

141. Foundations: Cellular Biology
Study of living organisms, designed to introduce the principles of cell structure, cell function, information transfer, development, and cellular physiology. This course is a prerequisite for most upper-level Biology courses. (Laboratory Science) CHRISTIE-POPE,NOWAK-THOMPSON, or TEPPER

142. Foundations: Organismal Biology
The topics of genetics, evolution, speciation, classification, the diversity of life, ecology, biological communities, and animal behavior. This course is a prerequisite for all upper-level Biology courses. (Laboratory Science) GANNES or McCOLLUM

205. Cell and Molecular Biology
Basic metabolism and organization of cells and intracellular organelles. Introduction to the structure and synthesis of biological macromolecules. Prerequisites: BIO 141, 142, and CHE 225.  (Laboratory Science) CARDONNOWAK-THOMPSON, or TEPPER

209. Plant Morphology
Structure and function of plants. Ecological, evolutionary, and physiological perspectives. Prerequisites: BIO 141 and 142. (Laboratory Science) CONDON

211. Evolution
Principles of evolution. Emphasis on modern evolutionary biology, evidence, and methods of hypothesis testing. Prerequisites: BIO 141 and 142. (Laboratory Science) CONDON

230. Conservation Biology
Ecological, evolutionary, and other biological principles and their application to the maintenance of global and local biodiversity. One or more field trips may extend beyond normal class hours. Prerequisite: BIO 142. (Science) 

254. Ornithology
Basic biology of birds, emphasizing taxonomy, structure, ecology, behavior, distribution, and natural history. May include an extended field trip. Other field trips may extend beyond normal class hours. Prerequisite: BIO 142. Alternate years. (Laboratory Science)GANNES

280/380. Internship: see Courses 280/380.

281-285. Topics in Biology
Study of a selected topic of current interest or concern in biology. See Topics Courses.

290/390. Individual Project: see Courses 290/390.

305. Advanced Molecular Biology
A continuation of BIO 205, with coverage of a topic of interest in molecular biology such as virology, aging, cytoskeleton, gene regulation, hormones, or oncology. Prerequisite: BIO 205. (Laboratory Science) CARDON

308. Invertebrate Zoology
Structure, classification, physiology, reproduction, life history, natural history, ecology, and evolution of invertebrates. Prerequisites: BIO 211 or BIO 141, 142, and permission of instructor. Offered subject to the availability of staff. (Laboratory Science)

312. Vertebrate Zoology
Survey of the biology of vertebrates, emphasizing structure, classification, physiology, reproductive biology, ecology, natural history, and evolution. Prerequisites: BIO 211 or BIO 141, 142, and permission of instructor. Offered subject to the availability of staff. (Laboratory Science)

313. Developmental Biology
Principles of development with an emphasis on early developmental changes. The course focuses on cellular and molecular changes associated with gene expression, induction, and morphology. Prerequisite: BIO 205. Alternate years. (Laboratory Science) TEPPER

315. Genetics
Principles of inheritance in plants and animals. Emphasis on the laws of heredity and molecular genetics. Laboratory research in molecular genetics. Recommended for juniors and seniors. Not to be taken in the same academic year as BIO 205. Prerequisite: BIO 205. (Laboratory Science) TEPPER

321. Ecology
Ecological theory. Why do individuals and species live the way they do, in the numbers they do, in the areas they do; and what environmental influences guided their evolution? Field trips may extend beyond normal class hours. Prerequisites: BIO 141, 142 and 211 and permission of instructor. (Laboratory Science) GANNES or  McCOLLUM

326. Microbiology
Survey of microbial world with emphasis on bacterial genetics and metabolism, and the role of microbial activities in the environment. Prerequisite: BIO 205. (Laboratory Science)

327. Immunology
A study of the human immune system including the basic principles involved in host defense mechanisms and methods of immunology. Prerequisite: BIO 205. Alternate years. (Laboratory Science) CHRISTIE-POPE

328. Neurobiology
The molecular, cellular, and physiological aspects of the nervous system. Emphasis is placed on basic properties of nerve cells, neural circuits, and organization and function of the mammalian nervous system. Prerequisite: BIO 205. Alternate years. (Laboratory Science)

329. Human Anatomy and Physiology I
An integrative approach to understanding basic anatomical and physiological relationships of the nervous, endocrine, immune, cardiovascular, respiratory, and excretory systems of the human. Prerequisite: BIO 205 or 141, 142 and permission of instructor. Alternate years. (Laboratory Science) CHRISTIE-POPE

330. Human Anatomy and Physiology II
An integrative approach to understanding basic anatomical and physiological relationships of the human skeletal, muscular, digestive, and reproductive systems and the control of these systems by the nervous and endocrine systems. Prerequisite: BIO 205 or 141, 142 and permission of instructor. Alternate years. (Laboratory Science)

332. Plant Systematics
Evolution and classification of vascular plants with an emphasis on field identification of flowering plants. Prerequisite: BIO 211. (Laboratory Science) CONDON

334. Animal Behavior
Evolution, development, causation, and function of behavior with emphasis on the origins and adaptive function of behaviors of vertebrates and invertebrates. This course includes one overnight field trip which requires an additional fee for lodging and facility rental. Other field trips may extend beyond normal class hours. Prerequisites: BIO 211 or BIO 141, 142, and permission of instructor. (Laboratory Science) McCOLLUM

335. Chemical Ecology
This course explores how organisms use naturally occurring chemicals to influence ecological interactions. Case studies will illustrate both interspecific and intraspecific interactions among plants, insects, animals, and microbes, including behaviors such as mate selection, colony organization, and defense. Some attention will be given to the biochemical origins of these compounds. Prerequisite: BIO 205. Alternate years.

337. Entomology
The evolutionary history, morphology, taxonomy, physiology, ecology, behavior, and economic importance of insects. Laboratories will focus on sampling, preservation, identification, and experimentation with insects. Field trips may extend beyond normal class hours. Prerequisites: BIO 211 or BIO 141, 142, and permission of instructor. Offered every third year. (Laboratory Science) McCOLLUM

381-385. Advanced Topics in Biology
Advanced examination of a selected topic of current interest or concern in biology. SeeTopics Courses.

399. Preservation Ecology Summer Internship
Field experience during the summer under the auspices of the Iowa Nature Conservancy in preservation ecology techniques, including biological resource assessment, monitoring animal and plant populations, landowner contacts, mapping, preparing reports, and designated preserve management tasks. Prerequisites: (1) at least five term credits in Biology; (2) at least two of the following: BIO 209, 254, 308, 312, 321, 332, 334, or 337; (3) junior standing; and (4) acceptance by the Nature Conservancy. See Courses 299/399.

483. Senior Seminar in Biology
Readings, presentations, and discussions from the recent research literature focused on an area of interest and/or expertise of the instructor. Prerequisites: BIO or BMB major and senior standing. Recommended prerequisite: BIO 315.

485. Biological Problems
Investigation of a biological problem, including a review of the literature, collection and interpretation of data, and writing of a research report. May be repeated once for credit. Intended for seniors or advanced juniors. Arrangements must be made with the instructor before registering. CARDONGANNESMcCOLLUMNOWAK-THOMPSON, or TEPPER

511. Extended Research in Biology (1/4)
Reading in depth on a topic of current interest and the pursuit of an experimental or theoretical problem related to the topic. This adjunct course must be taken over four successive terms. Prerequisite: permission of instructor.

901. Audubon Center of the North Woods: Wolf and Lynx Ecology Experiences in Northern Minnesota: see Cornell-Approved Domestic Off-Campus Programs.

963. Oak Ridge Science Semester: see Cornell-Approved Domestic Off-Campus Programs.